International CARDS Journal

Volume 2, Issue 9 2021 Q3

Models for reducing discrimination in technology

Discrimination in technology institutions may be reduced by following models of medical institutions in addressing inequities (Mezu‐Ndubuisi, 2021; Ogedegbe, 2020).  Emerging medical research proposes strategies for reducing health care inequities (Mezu‐Ndubuisi, 2021; Ogedegbe, 2020).  Mezu‐Ndubuisi (2021) suggests medical institution leadership investigate structures, policies, procedures, and cultures for system inequities and promote inclusion and equity.  Ogedegbe (2020) describes the pillars of racism in health care as employment discrimination, mass incarceration, red-lining, substandard public education, exposure to environmental hazards, differential health treatment, and reduced access to quality health treatment.  Hassen et al. (2021) provides policy, organizational, community, inter-personal and individual principles and strategies for anti-racism interventions in health settings.

The blending of technology and content may require research to support advances in other fields of study.  Matamoros-Fernández and Farkas (2021) review research on racism and hate speech in social media.  Simbao, Kouoh, Nzewi, Sousa, and Koide (2019) describe challenges for independence from political movements for universities to deconstruct stereotypes and provide students with enriched learning experiences.  Brooks (2020) makes suggestions for a framework of apolitical military professionalism to reflect contemporary situations.  Matamoros-Fernández and Farkas (2021) suggest research transcend text analysis for analysis of hate speech on social media.

Inclusion as part of design for technology corporate citizenship may rely on leadership and an effort of the academic research community (Matamoros-Fernández & Farkas, 2021).  Sloane (2019) reviews an analysis on qualities for social inclusion in housing design.  Matamoros-Fernández and Farkas (2021) suggests the effort of scholarly work to address structural racism in the design and governance of social media technologies.  Frazier (2019) suggests for corporations to support private citizens with legal aid as part of corporate citizenship.  Miller (2021) outlines four system conditions to reduce racism which include establish a framework, shape performance, improve processes, and change organizational thinking.





Brooks, R. (2020). Paradoxes of professionalism: Rethinking civil-military relations in the United States. International Security, 44(4), 7-44. doi:10.1162/isec_a_00374

Frazier, K. C. (2019). Why big business should support legal aid. Daedalus, 148(1), 150-159. doi:10.1162/daed_a_00548

Hassen, N., Lofters, A., Michael, S., Mall, A., Pinto, A. D., & Rackal, J. (2021). Implementing anti-racism interventions in healthcare settings: A scoping review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(6), 2993.

Matamoros-Fernández, A., & Farkas, J. (2021). Racism, hate speech, and social media: A systematic review and critique. Television & New Media, 22(2), 205-224. doi:10.1177/1527476420982230

Mezu‐Ndubuisi, O. J. (2021). Unmasking systemic racism and unconscious bias in medical workplaces: A call to servant leadership. Journal of the American Heart Association, 10(7), e018845. doi:10.1161/JAHA.120.018845

Miller, P. (2021). “System conditions”, system failure, structural racism and anti-racism in the United Kingdom: Evidence from education and beyond. Societies, 11(2). doi:10.3390/soc11020042

Ogedegbe, G. (2020). Responsibility of medical journals in addressing racism in health care. JAMA Network Open, 3(8), e2016531-e2016531. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16531

Simbao, R., Kouoh, K., Nzewi, U.-S., Sousa, S., & Koide, E. (2019). Condition report 3: Art history in africa: Debating localization, legitimization and new solidarities. African Arts, 52(2), 10-17. doi:10.1162/afar_a_00456

Sloane, M. (2019). On the need for mapping design inequalities. Design Issues, 35(4), 3-11. doi:10.1162/desi_a_00559

Bridging the digital divide in rural areas through policy

A number of policy proposals may bridge the gap of the digital divide in rural societies.  Nkedianye et al. (2020) suggests diversification in pastoral areas to reduce environment dependent lifestyles.  Mapuva (2015) suggest the promotion of rural economic development, engagement with local authorities, and revision of investment policies for improving economic challenges created by colonial legislation.  Larsen, Yeshitela, Mulatu, Seifu, and Desta (2019) review residential infrastructure projects and its support in achieving the United Nations sustainable development goal of cities involved in local government.

Rural societies may also benefit from evaluations of education and media.  Richmond and Cook (2016) describe how education and media can perpetuate systems of injustice in health inequities.  Corbett (2013) explains how independence can create an institutional architecture that are undercut by donor funded schemes that continue colonial practices.  Parlee (2015) details types of marginalization and disenfranchisement in mainstream economies.    Parlee (2015) studies marginalization in resource rich regions of the world.  Richmond and Cook (2016) explain how federal policies can present a solution to address health and social inequities.

Evaluations of sustainability and equity may also benefit research on rural societies.  Akinsulore and Akinsulore (2021) suggest public participation in environmental decision making to ensure the sustainability of mining sectors.  Hamann and Bertels (2018) analyze the contribution of employers in influencing the government and maintaining exploitative labour practices to create and perpetuate inequality.  Conversi (2017) describes how corporate interests deny climate change through manipulation of the media and censorship.  Conversi (2017) explain how cultural homogenization practices contribute globally to the reduction of state sovereignty and cultures.





Akinsulore, A. O., & Akinsulore, O. M. (2021). Sustainable development and the exploitation of bitumen in Nigeria: Assessing the environmental laws faultlines. Beijing Law Review, 12, 113-138.

Conversi, D. (2017). Cultural homogenization, ethnic cleansing, and genocide. In: Oxford University Press.

Corbett, J. (2013). Between crisis and persistence: Interpreting democracy narratives in the Pacific Islands. Political Science, 65(2), 198-215. doi:10.1177/0032318713507208

Hamann, R., & Bertels, S. (2018). The institutional work of exploitation: Employers’ work to create and perpetuate inequality. Journal of Management Studies, 55(3), 394-423. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12325

Larsen, L., Yeshitela, K., Mulatu, T., Seifu, S., & Desta, H. (2019). The impact of rapid urbanization and public housing development on urban form and density in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Land, 8(4). doi:10.3390/land8040066

Mapuva, J. (2015). Skewed rural development policies and economic malaise in Zimbabwe. African Journal of History and Culture, 7(7), 142-151.

Nkedianye, D. K., Ogutu, J. O., Said, M. Y., Kifugo, S. C., de Leeuw, J., Van Gardingen, P., & Reid, R. S. (2020). Comparative social demography, livelihood diversification and land tenure among the Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania. Pastoralism, 10(1), 17. doi:10.1186/s13570-020-00165-2

Parlee, B. L. (2015). Avoiding the resource curse: Indigenous communities and Canada’s oil sands. World Development, 74, 425-436. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.03.004

Richmond, C. A. M., & Cook, C. (2016). Creating conditions for Canadian aboriginal health equity: the promise of healthy public policy. Public Health Reviews, 37(1), 2. doi:10.1186/s40985-016-0016-5

Innovations in sustainability research

Open access data management and crowdfunding for scientific research are examples of emerging innovations in scientific research (Sauermann, Franzoni, & Shafi, 2019; Tupan & Kamaludin, 2020).  Sauermann et al. (2019) review the potential of crowdfunding for scientific research.  Arnstein et al. (2020) provide a systemic review of health research studies for which patients share results of the study.  Tupan and Kamaludin (2020) examine the growth of open access research data management.

The phenomenon of open access research has led to studies evaluating the growth and making comparisons to subscription based research studies.  Laakso and Polonioli (2018) compare and evaluate the development of open access to subscription access journals.  Smith et al. (2017) make a similar comparison in global health research.

The United Nations 17 Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by world leaders in 2015.  Emerging research evaluates possible integrations and improvements for the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.  Dybdahl and Lien (2017) describes the requirement of mental health as an integral part of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.  Dybdahl and Lien (2017) explains the need from both economic and human rights perspectives for mental health to be integrated into the Sustainable Development Goals.  Jha, Kickbusch, Taylor, and Abbasi (2016) propose focusing on global health policies for Sustainable Development Goals related to health.

Global heath and rights for laborers and non-nationals are themes for improving the Sustainable Development Goals.  Teh et al. (2019) explain sustainability challenges and social injustices in the seafood industry for workers.  Brolan et al. (2017) identified means for integrating protecting the health of non-nationals and internally displaced persons.  Flores and Samuel (2019) recommend accountability, legislation, transparency, and alliances to support community participation in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.  Randers et al. (2019) provide a quantitative analysis comparing the current socio-economic and environmental Sustainable Development Goals.  Di Marco et al. (2020) suggest integrating the risk of infectious disease in the economic assessment and development planning for the Sustainable Development Goals.





Arnstein, L., Wadsworth, A. C., Yamamoto, B. A., Stephens, R., Sehmi, K., Jones, R., . . . Woolley, K. L. (2020). Patient involvement in preparing health research peer-reviewed publications or results summaries: a systematic review and evidence-based recommendations. Research Involvement and Engagement, 6(1), 34. doi:10.1186/s40900-020-00190-w

Brolan, C. E., Forman, L., Dagron, S., Hammonds, R., Waris, A., Latif, L., & Ruano, A. L. (2017). The right to health of non-nationals and displaced persons in the sustainable development goals era: challenges for equity in universal health care. International Journal for Equity in Health, 16(1), 14. doi:10.1186/s12939-016-0500-z

Di Marco, M., Baker, M. L., Daszak, P., De Barro, P., Eskew, E. A., Godde, C. M., . . . Ferrier, S. (2020). Opinion: Sustainable development must account for pandemic risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(8), 3888. doi:10.1073/pnas.2001655117

Dybdahl, R., & Lien, a. L. (2017). Mental health is an integral part of the sustainable development goals. Prev Med Commun Health, 1(1).

Flores, W., & Samuel, J. (2019). Grassroots organisations and the sustainable development goals: no one left behind? BMJ, 365, l2269. doi:10.1136/bmj.l2269

Jha, A., Kickbusch, I., Taylor, P., & Abbasi, K. (2016). Accelerating achievement of the sustainable development goals. BMJ, 352, i409. doi:10.1136/bmj.i409

Laakso, M., & Polonioli, A. (2018). Open access in ethics research: an analysis of open access availability and author self-archiving behaviour in light of journal copyright restrictions. Scientometrics, 116(1), 291-317. doi:10.1007/s11192-018-2751-5

Randers, J., Rockström, J., Stoknes, P.-E., Goluke, U., Collste, D., Cornell, S. E., & Donges, J. (2019). Achieving the 17 Sustainable Development Goals within 9 planetary boundaries. Global Sustainability, 2, e24. doi:10.1017/sus.2019.22

Sauermann, H., Franzoni, C., & Shafi, K. (2019). Crowdfunding scientific research: Descriptive insights and correlates of funding success. PLoS One, 14(1), e0208384. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0208384

Smith, E., Haustein, S., Mongeon, P., Shu, F., Ridde, V., & Larivière, V. (2017). Knowledge sharing in global health research – the impact, uptake and cost of open access to scholarly literature. Health Research Policy and Systems, 15(1), 73. doi:10.1186/s12961-017-0235-3

Teh, L. C. L., Caddell, R., Allison, E. H., Finkbeiner, E. M., Kittinger, J. N., Nakamura, K., & Ota, Y. (2019). The role of human rights in implementing socially responsible seafood. PLoS One, 14(1), e0210241. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0210241

Tupan, T., & Kamaludin, K. (2020). Publication of research data management in open access journal analysis based on Scopus data. BACA: Jurnal Dokumentasi dan Informasi, 42(2), 215-226.

Emerging tools for digital journalism

Emerging media tools such as may improve the research capabilities for journalists (Mills & Wagemans, 2021).  Garfinkel (2010) proposed methodologies for digital forensic research for standards of data and code interchange.  Mills and Wagemans (2021) explain the concept of a media lab to expand innovation in journalism similar to the laboratory in science.  dinHadžialić and Thi (2021) model the capabilities of data journalists to access data from big data, open data, and open government to develop data visualizations.

Social media platforms may provide an assortment of channels for the discussion of the news (Swart, Peters, & Broersma, 2018).  Swart et al. (2018) compare the discussion of news and journalism in social media environments.  Prokopović and Vujović (2019) present the distinction that regulators are beginning to make between media and digital communication entities.

Capilla (2020) describes a shift in the perception of truth in news that has been accelerated by digital technologies.  Rodríguez-Virgili, Serrano-Puche, and Fernández (2021) lists two types of possible interventions to misinformation, empowering individuals to evaluate the news and preventing the exposure of false news.  Tejedor, Portalés-Oliva, Carniel-Bugs, and Cervi (2021) suggest the addition of news and media literacy to journalism studies to distinguish between true and false news.

The digital age has increased the difficulty of journalists in protecting the sources of information for their stories (Posetti, 2015).  Posetti (2015) discusses measures journalists can take to protect sources in the digital age as well as ways to inform sources of steps that they can take to protect themselves.  Di Salvo (2021) reviews open source software tools for journalists to implement for the protection of sources.





Capilla, P. (2020). Post-truth as a mutation of epistemology in journalism. Media and Communication, 9(1), 313–322.

Di Salvo, P. (2021). Securing whistleblowing in the digital age: SecureDrop and the changing journalistic practices for source protection. Digital Journalism, 1-18. doi:10.1080/21670811.2021.1889384

dinHadžialić, S., & Thi, P. V. (2021). The issue of the use of open data and the responsibility of modern journalists. Journal of Mass Communication & Journalism, 11(2).

Garfinkel, S. L. (2010). Digital forensics research: The next 10 years. Digital Investigation, 7, S64-S73. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diin.2010.05.009

Mills, J., & Wagemans, A. (2021). Media labs: Constructing journalism laboratories, innovating the future: How journalism is catalysing its future processes, products and people. Convergence, 1354856521994453. doi:10.1177/1354856521994453

Posetti, J. (2015). Protecting sources in the digital age : Journalism next. Rhodes Journalism Review, 2015(35), 46-53. doi:10.10520/EJC175781

Prokopović, A. M., & Vujović, M. (2019). Media in the digital age: Regulatory aspects. Faculty of Law University of Niš, 85.

Rodríguez-Virgili, J., Serrano-Puche, J., & Fernández, C. B. (2021). Digital disinformation and preventive actions: Perceptions of users from Argentina, Chile, and Spain. 9, 1, 323–337.

Swart, J., Peters, C., & Broersma, M. (2018). Shedding light on the dark social: The connective role of news and journalism in social media communities. New Media & Society, 20(11), 4329-4345. doi:10.1177/1461444818772063

Tejedor, S., Portalés-Oliva, M., Carniel-Bugs, R., & Cervi, L. (2021). Journalism students and information consumption in the era of fake news. Media and Communication, 9(1), 338–350. doi:DOI: 10.17645/mac.v9i1.3516